An Empirical Analysis of Tourism Services in Kashmir Valley

Gowhar Ahmad WANI, V. NAGARAJ, Shabir Hussain MALIK




This paper studied the performance and issues in functioning of Tourism Services in Kashmir Valley. The key goal is to identify the significant weaknesses and challenges and enable tourism authorities to act accordingly. For analysis, the perceptions of tourism stakeholders, namely tourists, residents, and service providers, were considered. An equal number of respondents are surveyed from five popular tourism destinations of Kashmir Valley based on numerous tourism services' issues and problems. Identifying the accessibility and availability of tourism services and concerns requires a scientific approach. In this regard, it has been tried to analyze the provision of tourism services, weak areas of performance, and causes and consequences of inadequacy. It is confirmed that most of the services provided are not sufficient to a more considerable extent, concerning their inadequate accessibility, poor functioning and minimum strength to satisfy respondents.  Therefore, further improvements are obligatory, taking into account deficiency, regional characteristics, and problems related to elements of tourism services.


Enable GingerCannot connect to Ginger Check your internet connection
or reload the browserDisable in this text fieldRephraseRephrase current sentence Edit in Ginger×


Kashmir Valley, tourism services, availability, performance, and problems


Archer, B., Cooper, C. & Ruhanen, L. (2005). Positive and Negative Impacts of Tourism. Global Tourism (ed. 3rd) by William F. Theobald: Elsevier Science 200 Wheeler Road Burlington- 01803.

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation. (2014). APEC Guidebook on Quality of Infrastructure Development and Investment. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, 1-3-1 Kasumegaseki, Chiyoda- Ku, Tokyo, 100-890, Japan, 1-28.

Attallah, F. N. (2015). Evaluation of perceived service quality provided by tourism establishments in Egypt. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 15(3), 149-60.

Bashir, S. & Goswami, S. (2016). Tourism induced Challenges in Municipal Solid Waste Management in Hill Towns: Case of Pahalgam. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 35, 77 - 89.

Basiony, A.E., Alla, G.A. and Sayed, A.S. (2014). Evaluating Tourism Service Quality Provided to the European Tourist “Applied on the British tourist.” Munich Personal RePEc Archive, MPRA Paper No. 57164, posted 9. July 2014 01:11 UTC: 1-38.

Berry, L. L., Shostack, G. L., & Upah, G. D. (1983). Relationship marketing in emerging perspectives on servcies marketing. Chicago: American Marketing Association, 2578.

Bhat, M. A. (2012). Tourism service quality: A dimension-specific assessment of SERVQUAL. Global Business Review, 13(2), 327-337.

Brockman, D. J. (2018). An Australian Perspective on the Australia-EU Free Trade Agreement. Potential Benefits of an Australia-EU Free Trade Agreement. University of Adelaide Press, 9-36.

DilPazir & Insha, A. (2015). A Study of Customer Satisfaction towards Hotel Industry in Kashmir Valley. International Journal of Management Research & Review, 5(12), 1117-1123.

Dupeyras, A. and MacCallum, N. (2013). Indicators for Measuring Competitiveness in Tourism: A Guidance Document. OECD Tourism Papers, 2013/02, OECD Publishing, 1-62.

European Commission and WTO. (2013). Sustainable Tourism for Development Guidebook Enhancing capacities for Sustainable Tourism for development in developing countries. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Capitán Haya, 42 - 28020 - Madrid (Spain) Institutional and Corporate Relations Programme: pp. 1-229.

FICCI. (2018). Indian Tourism Infrastructure Investment Opportunities & Challenges. Retrieved 11th January 2019 from

Government of India. (1986). Consumer Protection Act - 1986, Retrieved 13 Dec 2018 from

Haghkhah, A., Ebrahimpour. Abu Bakar and Siti. (2011). The Impact of Service Quality on Tourism Industry

Huyen, B.H. and Binh, T. L. (2020). Impact of Destination Image and Satisfaction on Tourist Loyalty: Mountain Destinations in Thanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(4), 185- 195.

Jasir, M., Qayoom, A. D. & Naved, A. (2020). Physio-chemical characterization of municipal solid waste and its management in high altitude urban areas of Northwestern. Waste Disposal & Sustainable Energy, (2), 151–160.

Khadaroo, J. & Seetanah, B. (2007). Transport Infrastructure and Tourism Development. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(4), 1021–1032.

Kimura, F., Mugan, S., Thangavelu, C.F. F. & Lurong, C. (2019). Introduction: Services Supply Chain-The Impact on Trade and Development in East Asian Countries. Journal of Southeast Asian Economies, 36( 2), 141-152.

Kinsely, G. (1979). Listening to Consumer is Key to Consumer or Service Marketing. Advertising Age, 50 (19), 54-60.

Kohpaiboon, A. (2019). Services in Thailand and Participation in Global Value Chains. Journal of Southeast Asian Economies, (36)2, 224-243.

Lai, I. K. (2019). Hotel Image and Reputation on Building Customer Loyalty: An Empirical Study in Macau. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Vol. 38.

Mamoun N. A. Luai E. Jraisat, D.J. Kurdie, R.N. and Laila T. (2016). Tourism service quality and destination loyalty – the mediating role of destination image from international tourists’ perspectives. Tourism Review, 71(1), 18 – 44.

Ministry of Commerce and Industry, GoI. (2018). Logistics Performance Index, 1-124.

Ministry of Tourism- Government of India. (2019-20). Annual Report on Tourism, 1-152.

Ministry of Tourism India. (2019). India Tourism Statistics at a Glance, 2018. Retrieved 20 Feb 2019 from

Ministry of Tourism-Government of India. (2014). Sustainable Tourism for India: Criteria and Indicators Applicable to Accommodation Sector and Tour Operators. Retrieved 06 Jan 2019 from

Munhurrun, P. R., Naidoo, P., Seebaluck, V.N. and Pillai, P. (2016). The Impact of Destination Service Quality on Tourist Satisfaction and Loyalty: Evidence from Mauritius. Proceedings of the International Academic Research Conference on Marketing & Tourism (MTC16Paris Conference) ISBN: 978-1-943579-40-2 Paris, France. 1-3 July, 2016. Paper ID: PM611: 1-7.

Nabina, Q. & Saima, M. (2017). A Comparative Study of Domestic and Foreign Tourists’ Service Experience in Kashmir. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 6(7), 12-20.

Narayan, B., Chandrasekaran, R., Sai, P. L. & Gopalan, R. (2009). Dimensions of Service Quality in Tourism- An Indian Perspective. Total Quality Management, 20(1), 61-89.

Naseer, A. D. and Showket, M. M. (2013). Marketing Development of Tourism Industry in J&K. 4D International Journal of IT and Commerce, 3(2), 75-85.

Neal, J.D., Uysal, M. and Sirgy, M.J. (2007). The Effect of Tourism Services on Travelers' Quality of Life. Journal of Travel Research, 46(2), 154-63.

OECD. (2020). Tourism Trends and Policies 2020. Retrieved 19th April 2021 from

Peña, P.I., Jamilena, F.M. and Miguel, A. R. (2012). Validation of cognitive image dimensions for rural tourist destinations a contribution to the management of rural tourist destinations. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 18(4), 261-273.

Ragavan, N.A., Subramanian, H. and Sharif, S.D. (2014). Tourist Perceptions of Destination Travel Attributes: An application to International Tourists to Kuala Lumpur. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 144, 403-11.

Rajesh, R. (2013). Impact of Tourist Perceptions, Destination Image and Tourist Satisfaction on Destination Loyalty: A Conceptual Model. PASOS, Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 11(3), 67-78.

Raluca, C. D. (2013). The Perspectives of Leisure Tourism in Romania Based on Mountain Tourism Infrastructure and Services. Ovidius University Annals, Series Economic Sciences, 2013, 13(1), 308-312.

Ramjit, M. (2015). Sustainable regional development through rural touris in Jammu and Kashmir. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 4 (2), 1-16.

Rathmell, J. M. (1966). What is meant by Services? Journal of Marketing, 30 (October), 32-36.

Regan, W. J. (1963). The Service Revolution. Journal of Marketing, 47 (July), 57-62.

Samer, R., Yiu, L. & Filature, M. (2015). Tourism Development in Least Developed Countries: Challenges and Opportunities. Handbook of Research and Global Hospitality and Tourism Management, IGI Global Publication Hershey, Penn. 2015, Chapter. 13, pp: 234-61.

Sasser & Stephen, A. (1978). Selling Jobs in the Service Sector. Business Horizons, 19 (June), 61-65.

Schloegel, C. (2007). Sustainable Tourism. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 25 (3-4), 247-264.

Seetanah, B., Juwaheer, T.D., Lamport, M.J., Rojid, S., Sannassee, R. V. & Subadar, A. U. (2011). Does Infrastructure Matter In Tourism Development?” University of Mauritius Research Journal, 17, 89 - 108.

Selvam and Babu. (2005). Tourists Satisfaction: A Study of Tirruchirapali District, Tamil Nadu. Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development: Indian and Global Perspectives, New century Publications: New Delhi: 222-234.

Sharpley, R. (2000). Tourism and Sustainable Development: Exploring the Theoretical Divide. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8(1), 1-19.

Titu, A. M., Ruleau, S. A. & Titu, S. (2016). Measuring Service Quality in Tourism Industry. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 221 (2016), 294 – 301.

Tosuna, C. Dedeoğlu, B. B. and Alan, F. (2015). Destination service quality, affective image and revisit intention: The moderating role of experience. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4(4), 222-234.

Tsitsiloni M., Grigoroudis E., and Zopounidis, C. (2013) Service Quality Evaluation in the Tourism Industry: A SWOT Analysis Approach. In: Migdalas A., Sifaleras A., Georgiadis C., Papathanasiou J., Stiakakis E. (eds) Optimization Theory, Decision Making, and Operations Research Applications. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics, vol (31), Springer, New York.

Ukabuilu, E.N. & Igbojekwe, P.A. (2015). Application of Tourism Economic Development Theories to the Attainment of Goals in Developing Tourism Sites in Cross River State, Nigeria. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports, (13), 1-8.

UNWTO. (2010). International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008. United Nations Publication Sales No. E.08.XVII.28. ISBN 978-92-1-161521-0. Retrieved 19th April 2021 from

UNWTO. (2010). International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008. United Nations Publication Sales No. E.08.XVII.28. ISBN 978-92-1-161521-0. Retrieved 24th Feb 2020 from

UNWTO. (2017). Convention on the Protection of Tourists and on the Rights and Obligations of Tourism Service Providers. Twenty-second session Chengdu, China, 11-16 September 2017 Provisional agenda item 10(I)(c).

World Economic Forum. (2019). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019 Travel and Tourism at a Tipping Point. World Economic Forum 91-93 route de la Capite CH-1223 Cologny/Geneva Switzerland, 1- 112.

World Economic Forum. (2017). Incredible India 2.0 India’s $ 20 Billion Tourism Opportunity. Retrieved 23 Apr 2019 from http://www3.Weforum.Org, 1-24.

World Trade Organisation. (2010). Measuring trade in services, a training module for the World Bank. A training module produced by WTO / OMC, 1- 55.

WTTC, IFTO, IH&RA & ICC. (2002). Tourism Industry as a partner for sustainable development. World Travel & Tourism Council, International Hotel & Restaurant Association, International Federation of Tour Operators, International Council of Cruise Lines and United Nations Environment Programme, 1-70.

Yusof, N.A., Rahman, F.A., Jamil, M.F. & Iranmanesh, M. (2014). Measuring the Quality of Ecotourism Services: Case Study–Based Model Validation. SAGE Open, 4(2), 1-9

Zeithmal, A. V., Parasuraman & Leonard, L. B (1985). Problems and Strategies in Services Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 49 (2), 33-46.

Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer Perception of Price, Quality and Value: A Means-End Model and Synthesis of Evidence. J. Marketing, 52, 2-21.

Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.