Residents’ Attitudes, Intentions and Actual Engagement in Conservation of Built Heritage: Examining the Moderating Effect of Level of Tourism Development in Tanzania

Noel Biseko Lwoga


This study investigated factors influencing local residents' engagement in the conservation of the built heritage. It proposed a theoretical extension of the theory of planned behaviour by adding to the socio-psychological theory the tourism situational factor of "level of tourism development at the destination". A questionnaire survey was conducted with local households in Zanzibar Stone Town (N = 151) and Pangani Town (N = 88) in Tanzania. The former town is more developed in terms of tourism than the latter. The results of the structural equation modelling demonstrate that attitudes to conservation relate positively to intention to conserve, which, in turn, relates positively to (actual) engagement in conservation. The mentioned relationships are stronger among local residents in Zanzibar Stone Town that those in Pangani Town. The survey dara were triangualted by in-depth interviews with 12 local residents, which showed the importance of socio-cultural contexts in explaining the effect of tourism development. The study supports the extension of socio-psychological models with the inclusion of tourism development factor in the built heritage setting. The study discusses theoretical and managerial implications.




Tanzania's heritage; tourism; conservation; Zanzibar; Pangani


Aas, C., Ladkin, A. and Fletcher, J. (2005) Stakeholder collaboration and heritage management, Annals of Tourism Research, 32, pp.28 – 48.

Abrahamse, W. and Steg, L. (2011) Factors related to household energy use and intention to reduce it: the role of psychological and socio-demographic variables. Human Ecology Review, 18, pp.30–40. Retrieved from, accessed May 23, 2016.

Ajzen, I. (2013) Construction of a theory of planned behavior questionnaire, Measurement instrument database for the social science, Retrieved from, accessed April 18, 2016

Ajzen, I. (2006) Constructing a theory of planned behavior questionnaire: conceptual and methodological considerations, Retrieved from, accessed April 8, 2016

Ajzen, I. (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, pp. 179 – 211.

Armitage, C.J. and Conner, M. (2001) Efficacy of the theory of planned behavior: a meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, pp. 471-499.

Ashley, K.S., Osmani, M., Emmitt, S., Mallinson, M. and Mallinson, H. (2015) Assessing stakeholders’ perspectives towards the conservation of the built heritage of Suakin, Sudan. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 21, pp. 674-697.

International Council of Monuments and Sites [ICOMOS] (1999) The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS Charter for places of cultural significance, Australia ICOMOS Incorporated, Retrieved from, accessed March 12, 2016.

Bandura, A. (1982) Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, pp. 122-147. Retrieved from, accessed March 8, 2016.

Barr, S. and Gilg, A. (2007) A conceptual framework for understanding and analyzing attitudes towards environmental behavior. Human Geography, 89, pp. 361 – 379. Retrieved from, accessed March 8, 2016.

Davis, G., Phillips, P.S., Read, A.D. and Lida, Y. (2006) Demonstrating the need for the development of internal research capacity: understanding recycling participation using the theory of planned behavior in West Oxfordshire, UK. Resource, Conservation and Recycling, 46, pp. 115-127.

Doxey, G.V. (1975). When enough’s enough: the natives are restless in Old Niagara. Heritage Canada, 2, pp. 26-27.

Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley: Reading, MA.

Garrod, G.D., Willis, K.G., Bjarnadottir, H. and Cockbain, P. (1996) The non-priced benefits of renovating historic buildings: A case study of Newcastle’s Grainger. Cities, 13, pp. 423 – 430.

Gill, A.M. and Williams, P.W. (2011) Rethinking resort growth: understanding evolving governance strategies in Whistler, British Columbia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19, pp. 629-948.

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J. and Anderson, R.E. (2014) Multivariate data analysis. Pearson Education Limited: London.

Kaiser, F.G., Schultz, P.W. and Scheuthle, H. (2007) The theory of planned behavior without compatibility? Beyond method bias and past trivial associations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, pp. 1522-1544.

Kankpeyeng, B.W. (2009) The cultural landscape of Tongo-Tenzuk, Ghana, In T. Joffroy, (Ed.), Traditional conservation practices in Africa (pp. 16 – 23). ICCROM Conservation Studies: Rome.

Kollmuss, A. and Agyeman, J. (2002) Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environmental Education Research, 8, pp. 241 – 260.

Krejcie, R.V. and Morgan, D.W. (1970) Determining sample size for research activities, Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, pp. 607-610. Retrieved from, accessed March 10, 2016.

Liebowitz, S.J. and Margolis, S.E. (1995) Path dependence, lock-in, and history. The Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, VII, pp. 205-226. Retrieved from, accessed March 8, 2016.

Lim, Y.M., Khoo, S.L. and Ch’ng, K.S. (2014) Residents’ perspectives towards conservation in George Town World Heritage City: A post-UNESCO listing scenario. Journal of Urban and Regional Analysis, VI, pp. 161-180.

Lundberg, E. (2015) The level of tourism development and resident attitudes: a comparative case study of coastal destinations. Scandinavia Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15, pp. 66-294.

Lwoga, N.B., Anderson, W., Mapunda, B.B.B., Andersson, T.D. and Mossberg, L. (2015) Socio-psychological motives for stakeholders’ engagement in conservation of built heritage attractions in Tanzania, in Conference Proceeding, ATLAS Africa Conference, 3-5 June, 2015, pp 8-15.

Lwoga, N.B. (2011) Tourism: meaning, practice and history, Dar es Salaam University Press: Dar es Salaam.

Ma, M. and Hassink, R. (2013) An evolutionary perspective on tourism area development. Annals of Tourism Research, 41, pp. 89-109.

Mapunda, B. (2013) Get off my land! Towards mutual understanding in archaeological field conflicts. AP Journal, 3, pp. 74-96. Retrieved from, accessed February, 2016.

McDonald, F.V. (2014) Developing an integrated conceptual framework of pro-environmental behavior in the workplace through synthesis of the current literature. Administrative Sciences, 4, pp. 276-303.

McKercher, B., Ho, P.S.Y. and du Cros, H. (2005) Relationship between tourism and cultural heritage management: evidence from Hong Kong. Tourism Management, 26, pp. 539-548.

Napon, A. and Rakotomamonjy, B. (2009. The Na-Yiri of Kokologho, Burkina Faso. In T. Joffroy (Ed.), Traditional conservation practices in Africa (pp. 6 – 15). ICCROM Conservation Studies: Rome.

Ndoro, W. (2005) Your monument our shrine: the preservation of Great Zimbabwe. Rome: ICCROM Conservation Studies. Retrieved from, accessed March 15, 2016.

Pangani District Council (2010) Pangani District Profile, Pangani District Council: Pangani.

Radzuan, I.S.M., Fukami, N. and Ahmad, Y. (2014) Incentives for the conservation of traditional settlements: resident’s perception in Ainokura and Kawagoe, Japan, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 12, pp. 1-29.

Skinner, B.F. (1981) Selection by consequences. Science, 213, pp. 501-504.

Stem, C.J., Lassoie, J.P., Lee, D.R., Deshler, D.D. and Schelhas, J.W. (2003) Community participation in ecotourism benefits: the link to conservation practices and perspectives. Society and Natural Resources: An International Journal, 16, pp. 387-413.

Stern, P.C. (2000). Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 56, pp. 407-424.

Stronza, A. (2007) The economic promise of ecotourism for conservation. Journal of Ecotourism, 6, pp. 210-230.

Tang, Z., Chen, X. and Luo, J. (2011) Determining socio-psychological drivers for rural household recycling behaviour in developing countries: a case study from Wugan, Hunan, China. Environment and Behavior, 43, pp. 848-877.

Tanga City Council (2011) Tanga tourism guide: Tanzania’s secret in-between the ocean and the parks, Tanga City Council: Tanga.

Timothy, D.J. and Nyaupane, G.P. (2009) Cultural heritage and tourism in the developing world: A regional perspective. Routledge: London.

Tonglet, M. Phillips, P.S. and Read, A.D. (2004) Using the theory of planned behavior to investigate the determinants of recycling behavior: a case study from Brixworth, UK. Resources Conservation and Recycling, 41, pp. 191-214.

Tudor, T.L., Barr, S.W. and Gilg, A.W. (2006) Linking intended behavior and actions: a case study of healthcare waste management in the Cornwall NHS. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 51, pp. 1-23.

United Republic of Tanzania [URT] (2013) 2012 Population and Housing Census: population distribution by administrative areas, National Bureau of Statistics & Office of Chief Government Statistician: Dar es Salaam.

United Republic of Tanzania [URT] (2008) Cultural Heritage Policy. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism. Antiquities Department: Dar es Salaam.

United Republic of Tanzania [URT] (1999) The National Tourism Policy, Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism: Dar es Salaam.

Walpole, M.J. and Goodwin, H.J. (2001) Local attitudes towards conservation and tourism around Komodo National Park, Indonesia. Environmental Conservation, 28, pp. 160-166.

Wells, M., Brandon, K.E. and Hannah, L. (1992) People and parks: Linking protected area management with local communities. World Bank: Washington, DC.

Yin, R.K. (2010) Case study research: design and methods. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA.

Zanzibar Commission for Tourism [ZCT] (2015) Tourism operators, Retrieved from, accessed March 18, 2016.

Zanzibar Commission for Tourism [ZCT] (2014) Zanzibar destination: five years marketing plan (2015-2020). Retrieved from AST-2015-2020.pdf, accessed March 18, 2016.

Zanzibar Stone Town Heritage Society [ZSTHS]. (n.d.) Zanzibar Island, Retrieved from, accessed April 20, 2016.

Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.