Ozan GULER, Gürkan AKDAĞ, Ali DALGIÇ, Sercan BENLİ, A. Celil ÇAKICI


The aim of this study is to (1) investigate locals’ perceptions of the positive and negative impacts of the XVII Mediterranean Games; (2) identify which perceptions of these impacts would predict locals’ intention to support future sporting events and (3) discussing locals’ support intentions towards future sporting events within the context of altruistic surplus phenomenon. The data was obtained through stratified sampling by gathering one on one questionnaire from 422 participants, which were then analyzed by exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. The results show that while locals mostly benefit from the XVII Mediterranean Games in the areas of “tourism infrastructure development” and ‘image enhancement-consolidation’, they are complaining about uncovered economic expectations. As a result of regression analysis “tourism resource development and urban revitalization” and “image enhancement and consolidation” variables have significantly predicted the locals’ support intentions for the future sporting events. It is understood that the locals’ positive perceptions far outweighed the effects of negative perceptions in terms of intentions to support hosting future sport events. When it comes to local’s positive outlooks, effects of negative perceptions on support intention become insignificant which could be explained by the altruistic surplus phenomenon.


Sport events; Tourism development; Altruistic Surplus Phenomenon; Mediterranean Games; Mersin


Balduck, A., Maes, M., and Buelens, M. (2011). “The Social Impact of The Tour de France: Comparisons of Residents' Pre- and Post-Event Perceptions.”European Sport Management Quarterly, 11(2), 91-113.

Briedenhann, J. (2011). “Economic and Tourism Expectations of The 2010 FIFA World Cup: A Resident Perspective.”Journal of Sport and Tourism, 16(1), 5-32.

Bull, C., and Lovell, J. (2007). “The Impact of Hosting Major Sporting Events on Local Residents: An Analysis of The Views and Perceptions of Canterbury Residents in Relation to The Tour de France 2007.”Journal of Sport and Tourism, 12(3-4), 229-248.

Deccio, C., and Baloglu, S. (2002). “Nonhost Community Resident Reactions to The 2002 Winter Olympics: The Spillover Impacts.”Journal of Travel Research, 41(1), 46-56.

Deloitte (2013). Kalıcı Bir Miras - Önemli Spor Etkinlikleri Ev Sahibi Ülkeler ve Ekonomilerinde Nasıl Olumlu Bir Değişim Sağlayabilir, ( Turkey/Local%20Assets/Documents/turkey-tr_ps_KaliciBirMiras_160610.pdf) (accessed December 30, 2013).

Djaballah, M., Hautbois, C., and Desbordes, M. (2015). “Non-Mega Sporting Events' Social Impacts: A Sensemaking Approach of Local Governments' Perceptions and Strategies.”European Sport Management Quarterly, 15(1), 48-76.

Dolles, H., and Söderman, S. (2008). “Mega-Sporting Events in Asia-Impacts on Society, Business and Management: An Introduction.”Asian Business and Management, 7, 147-162.

Emerson, M. R. (1976). “Social Exchange Theory.”Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 335-362.

Essex, S., and Chalkley, B. (1998). “Olympic Games: Catalyst of Urban Change.”Leisure Studies, 17(3), 187-206.

Faulkner, B., and Tideswell C. (1997). “A Framework for Monitoring Community Impacts of Tourism.”Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5(1), 3-28.

Florek, M., Breitbarth, T., and Conejo, F. (2008). “Mega Event= Mega Impact? Travelling Fans' Experience and Perceptions of The 2006 FIFA World Cup Host Nation.”Journal of Sport and Tourism, 13(3), 199-219.

Getz, D. (2008). “Event Tourism: Definition, Evolution And Research.”Tourism Management, 29(3), 403-428.

Güçer, E., and Silik, C. E. (2014). “The Impacts of The International Sports Organizations: A Study on 2013 Mersin XVII. Mediterranean Games.”International Journal of Science Culture and Sport (IntJSCS), 2(5), 148-170.

Gursoy, D., and Kendall, K.W. (2006). “Hosting Mega Events: Modelling Locals’ Support.”Annals of Tourism Research, 33(3), 603-623.

Hair, J. F. Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., and Anderson, R. E. (2010). “Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.).” Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hair, J. F., Tatham, R. L., Anderson, R. E., and Black, W. (2006). “Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.).” Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Horne J., and Manzenreiter, W. (2006). “An Introduction to The Sociology of Sports Mega-Events.”The Sociological Review, 54(2), 1-24.

Jin, L., Zhang, J.J., Ma, X., and Connaughton, D. P. (2011). “Residents' Perceptions of Environmental Impacts of The 2008 Beijing Green Olympic Games.”European Sport Management Quarterly, 11(3), 275-300.

Jones, C. (2001). “Mega-Events and Host-Region Impacts: Determining The True Worth of The 1999 Rugby World Cup.”International Journal of Tourism Research, 3(3), 241-251.

Kahneman, D., and Tvertsky, A.(1979). “Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Under Risk.”Econometrica, 47(2), 263-291.

Kim, H. J., Gursoy, D., and Lee, S. (2006). “The Impact of The 2002 World Cup on South Korea: Comparisons of Pre- and Post-Games.”Tourism Management, 27(1), 86-96.

Kim, S. S., and Petrick, J. F. (2005). “Residents’ Perceptions on Impacts of The FIFA 2002 World Cup: The Case of Seoul as a Host City.”Tourism Management, 26, 25-38.

Konstantaki, M., and Wickens, E. (2010). “Residents’ Perceptions of Environmental and Security Issues at the 2012 London Olympic Games.”Journal of Sport and Tourism, 15(4), 337-357.

Koşan, A., and Güneş, E. (2009). “Gönüllülük ve Erzurum 2011 Üniversitelerarası Kış Oyunları.”Atatürk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 13(2), 1-18.

Li, Y., and Luk, Y. M. 2011. “Impacts of The 4th East Asian Games on Residents’ Participation in Leisure Sports and Physical Activities: The Case of Macau, China.”Acta geographica Slovenica, 51(2), 377-390.

Lorde, T., Greenidge, D., and Devonish, D. (2011). “Local Residents’ Perceptions of The Impact of The ICC Criket World Cup 2007 on Barbados: Comparisons of Pre And Post-Games.”Tourism Management, 32, 349-356.

Ma, S. C., and Rotherham, I. D. (2015). “Residents’ Changed Perceptions of Sport Event Impacts: The Case of The 2012 Tour De Taiwan.”Leisure Studies, (ahead-of-print), 1-22. 10.1080/02614367.2015.1035313

Malfas, M., Theodoraki, E., and Houlihan, B. (2004). “Impacts of The Olympic Games as Mega-Events.”Municipial Engineer, 157(3), 209-220.

Matheson, V. A., and Baade, R. A. (2004). “Mega-Sporting Events in Developing Nations: Playing The Way to Prosperity?”The South African Journal Economics, 72(5), 1085-1096.

Mihalik, B. J., and Simonetta, L. (1999). “A Midterm Assessment of The Host Population's Perceptions of The 1996 Summer Olympics: Support, Attendance, Benefits, and Liabilities.”Journal of Travel Research, 37, 244-248.

Mules, T. (1998). “Taxpayer Subsidies for Major Sporting Events.”Sport Management Review, 1, 25-43.

Müller, M. (2015). “What Makes an Event a Mega-Event? Definitions and Sizes.” Leisure Studies, (ahead-of-print), 1-16.

McCabe, S. (2006). “The Making of Community Identity Through Historic Festive Practice: The Case of Ashbourne Royal Shrovetide Football.” Festivals, Tourism and Social Change, 99-118.

Ohmann, S., Jones, I., and Wilkes, K. (2006). “The Perceived Social Impacts of The 2006 Football World Cup on Munich Residents.”Journal of Sport and Tourism, 11(2), 129-152.

Prayag, G., Hosany, S., Nunkoo, R., and Alders, T. (2013). “London Residents' Support for The 2012 Olympic Games: The Mediating Effect of Overall Attitude.”Tourism Management, 36, 629-640.

Preuss, H. (2005). “The Economic Impact of Visitors at Major Multi-Sport-Events.”European Sport Management Quarterly, 5, 283-304.

Preuss, H., and Solberg, H.A. (2006). “Attracting Major Sporting Events: The Role of Local Residents.”European Sport Management Quarterly, 6(4), 391-411.

Ritchie, B. W., Shipway R., and Cleeve B. (2009). “Resident Perceptions of Mega-Sporting Events: A Non-Host City Perspective of The 2012 London Olympic Games.”Journal of Sport and Tourism, 14(2-3), 143-167.

Ruhanen, L., and Whitford, M. (2011). “Indigenous Sporting Events: More Than Just A Game.”International Journal of Event Management Research, 6(1), 33-51.

Sekaran, U. (1992). “Research Methods for Business.” New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Taks, M. (2013). “Social Sustainability of Non-Mega Sport Events in a Global World.”European Journal for Sport and Society, 10(2), 121-141.

Taks, M., Green, B. C., Misener, L., and Chalip, L. (2014). “Evaluating Sport Development Outcomes: The Case of a Medium-Sized International Sport Event.”European Sport Management Quarterly, 14(3), 213-237.

TUIK (Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu) (2012). Seçilmiş Göstergelerle Mersin, ( (accessed March 05, 2014).

Visit Scotland (2012). Sport Tourism - The scale of opportunity from hosting a mega event, InsightDepartment,( (accessed March 03, 2014).

Waitt, G. (2003). “The Social Impacts of The Sydney Olympics.”Annals of Tourism Research, 30(1), 194–215.

Wilson, R. (2006). “The Economic Impact of Local Sport Events: Significant, Limited or Otherwise? A Case Study of Four Swimming Events.”Managing Leisure, 11:1, 57-70.

Zimbalist, A. (2010). “Is it worth it?”IMF Finance and Development, 47(1), 8-11.

Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.